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3D Printing Progress
Posted on December 20, 2018 by  & 
External Company Press Release

Can an "impossible object" be 3D printed, even impossibly small?

Can an "impossible object" be 3D printed, even impossibly small? The answer is: Yes, if you take an impossible object design and combine it with micro 3d printing technology. A metallic impossible object at the size of a red blood cell is born. For more information see the IDTechEx report on 3D Printing 2018-2028.
An impossible object is a rigid structure that appears to have an entirely different shape when seen from different perspectives. These objects - classified as impossible - have now reached another impossible state: They are printed out of solid copper in three sizes, ranging from a tiny 0.1-mm-diameter, to a very tiny 0.03-mm-diameter to an extremely tiny 0.01-mm-diameter. This size of 0.01 mm or 10 micrometers is comparable to the size of a red blood cell.
Professor Kokichi Sugihara, a Japanese mathematical scientist at Meiji University, discovered the class of impossible objects. He found a method to turn impossible drawings, like the drawings of M. C. Escher, into actual 3D objects that have the same illusion of impossibility. One of Sugihara's 3D designs has now been printed by the new FluidFM 3D printing technology of Cytosurge. This technology prints solid metal structures at the sub-millimeter scale.
To fully appreciate the illusion, the impossible objects have been imaged at the very high resolution of an electron microscope. And even inside the electron microscope, two opposite viewing perspectives make the objects undergo an impossible metamorphosis.
FluidFM® Printing Technology
This technology, originally invented at ETH Zurich, uses a tiny pipette with a 300-nm-wide opening to do local electrodeposition of metals, in this case copper. The hollow FluidFM nanopipette is brought into proximity (~1µm) of a conductive surface and a metal ion containing liquid is dispensed. A negative potential applied to the surface reduces the delivered copper ions to solid atoms, which deposit just below the pipette opening. Once the gap between surface and pipette is filled with the solid copper atoms, the pipette moves to the next position, repeating the deposition and like this, a 3D object is created.
About Kokichi Sugihara
Kokichi Sugihara received the Bachelor, Master, and Doctor of Engineering from the University of Tokyo in 1971, 1973 and 1980, respectively. He worked at the Electrotechnical Laboratory in the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan, Nagoya University and the University of Tokyo before moving to the current position at Meiji University in 2009. His research area is mathematical engineering. Working on computer vision, he discovered a method to construct 3D objects from impossible drawings. He then extended his research interest to human vision and optical illusion. He won the first prize of the Best Illusion of the Year Contest three times (2010, 2013 and 2018) and finished second twice (2015 and 2016).
Cytosurge AG is an ETH spin-off founded in 2009 that successfully develops, manufactures and distributes state-of-the-art nanotechnology solutions based on its patented FluidFM® technology.
Cytosurge created the award-winning FluidFM µ3Dprinter for 3D metal printing at the micrometer scale, the FluidFM ADD-ON, a powerful upgrade solution for AFMs, and the FluidFM BOT, a fully integrated system for cell research. Three leading-edge solutions, for those who want to go beyond current technological boundaries.
Source: Cytosurge AG
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